L641 Advanced Phonetics                             head shot

Dec 5, 2007                                                       

Prof. Robert Port
330 Memorial Hall, 855-9217

The goal of this course is, first, to introduce students to current theoretical issues in phonetics -- especially as they relate to phonology and language acquisition -- and, secondly, to teach important skills for phonetics research.

Requirements and approximate dates.
Class participation
Final Exam (questions in advance), late Nov
Journal report, due Tues, Sept 18.
Research project due last week

total 100%

Participation: Students will take turns leading the discussion on papers. Students are expected to be familiar with all assigned papers.  The presenter will lead the discussion by summarizing the logic of the paper and bringing up points for discussion. 

The Final Exam will be early enough not to interfere with the end of the semester. Questions for the Final Exam will be given out a week ahead and answers will be written in class.

Journal Report.  In the next three weeks, students should skim phonetics journal issues over the past 3-4 years. Write an essay describing 4 or 5 specific papers. The articles you choose should be whatever interests you. They can be related to a single theme or represent different themes and issues or contrasting methodologies. The journals should be: Journal of Phonetics,  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (Speech Communication section only), Phonetica, Language and Speech and the Intl Congress of Phonetics Sciences 2007 (which I have a CD of).  Your essay should comment on what issue is being addressed and a schematic description of the experiments.  The goals of this exercise include (a)  helping you  find a research topic for the course, (b) familiarizing you with the kind of problems and methodologies that are current in phonetics and phonology and/or, perhaps, (c) giving you a look at a range of approaches to one problem.

The Research Project involves designing an experiment (in consultation with me) on speech production or speech perception. It will require conducting the experiment (not too large) and writing it up. Your paper should include a clear rationale for the project making reference to the appropriate literature. This will probably require some 15-20 pages of text, but not more.

Text Materials

Most of our readings come from these sources. 
1.  Kent, Atal and Miller, 1991 Papers in Speech Communication: Speech Production. Acous Soc Amer.
2.  Kent, Atal and Miller, 1991 Papers in Speech Communication: Speech Perception. Acous Soc Amer.
3.  Winifred Strange (ed.) 1995  Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in Cross-Language Research. (York Press: Baltimore)
4. Oxford Encyclopedia of Psycholinguistics. (2007)  Many relevant articles.
5.  Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 2007 (Saarbruecken). (I have the CD).
6.  Reprint collection to be available on E-Reserves.  Find E-Reserve from the main Libary page. Our password is `create'.

Tentative Outline

Recommended readings are enclosed in brackets or indented.  I'm willing to modify these topics to suit students' interests.

Week 1. (August 28, 30)  Human Audition for Phoneticians

Read :
       Recommended:  Decibel Scale for Sound Intensity and Pressure (RFP)

Week 2-3 . (Sept 4, 6, 11)  Voice-Onset Time: a cue for `Voice' that's easy to measure.

Borden, G., K. S. Harris and L. J. Raphael (1994) Speech Science Primer: Physiology, acoustics and perception of speech. (3d Ed) (Lippencott, Williams and Wilkins; Philadelphia) pp. 72-89 on ``Phonation.''    [pdf]    presented by Jon Anderson

Lisker, Leigh and A. Abramson (1964) A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: acoustical measurements. Word 20, 384-422.  In Kent, Atal and Miller, 1991 Papers in Speech Communication: Speech Production [pdf]      Dan Fogerty

Lisker, L. and A. Abramson (1970) The voicing dimension; Some experiments in comparative phonetics. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Prague, 1967. (Academia, Prague) 563-567.   In Kent, Atal and Miller, 1991 Papers in Speech Communication: Speech Perception  [pdf]    Miguel Martinez

Lisker, Leigh and Arthur Abramson (1967) Some effects of context on voice onset time in English stops. Language and Speech 10, 1-28.  [pdf]   Port

Tues, Sept 11

Hirose, Hajime and Thomas Gay (1972) The activity of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles in voicing control: an electromyographic study. Phonetica 25: 140-164.  [pdf]       Elena Schoonmaker-Gates

Lisker, L. and A. Abramson (1971) Distinctive features and laryngeal control. Language 47, 767-785.  [pdf]     Chung-lin Yang

Halle, M. & K. N. Stevens (1971) A note on laryngeal features. Quarterly Progress Report, Research Laboratory in Electronics, 101, 198-213. (MIT).
Port, R. F. and R. Rotunno (1979) Relation between voice-onset time and vowel duration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 66, 654-662.

Week 3-4. (Sept 13, 18) Incomplete Neutralization and the Universal Phonetic Space

Port, R. F. & Penny Crawford (1989) Incomplete neutralization and pragmatics in German. Journal of Phonetics 16, 257-282  [pdf]    Jon Anderson

Port, Robert F. (1996) Phonetic discreteness and formal linguistics: Reply to A. Manaster-Ramer. Journal of Phonetics 24, 491-511.  [pdf]  Dan Fogerty

Warner, Natasha, Allard Jongman, Joan Sereno & Rachel Kemps (2004) Incomplete neutralization and other sub-phonemic durational differences in production and perception: evidence from Dutch. J. Phonetics 32, 251-276. [pdf]    Miguel M-M

Port: Is there a Universal Phonetics Space: Why Apriori Phonetic Transcription is Not Possible
Port:  Notes on Science and Linguistics

Fox, Robert and Dale Terbeek (1977) Dental flaps, vowel duration and rule ordering in American English. Journal of Phonetics 5, 27-34.
Port, Robert F. (1996) Phonetic discreteness and formal linguistics: Reply to A. Manaster-Ramer. Journal of Phonetics, 24, 491-511.
Fourakis, Marios and R. Port (1986) Stop epenthesis in English. Journal of Phonetics 14, 197-222.
Port, R. F. and Michael O'Dell (1986) Neutralization of syllable-final voicing in German. Journal of Phonetics 13, 455-471.
Klecka, William R. (1980) Discriminant Analysis. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills
Kilpatrick, Cynthia, Ryan Shosted and Amalia Arvaniti.(2007) On the perception of incomplete neutralization. 

Week 4-5.  (Sept 20, 25, 27)  Feature Systems and Place of Articulation in Stops:

Jakobson, R., G. Fant & M. Halle (1952). Preliminaries to Speech Analysis. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT. (The whole book but pay special attention to: the introduction [pp. 1-21], the tonality features and Tense/Lax [29-39] and the figures [41-62].  [pdf]  Yelena  S-G

Chomsky, Noam and Morris Halle (1967) Sound Pattern of English. (Harper-Row) Chapters 1 and 7 (293-329). [pdf]   Chung-linYang
(See also the summary of these features in the appendix to P. Ladefoged's Course in Phonetics, Ed 2 (1985) but dropped from Eds 3-5.)

Port's Comparison of J-F-H and C-H feature systems.
Universality of Phonetic Features (quotes from Chomksy-Halle, p . 4)
What is a Formal System? (from John Haugeland)   Port

Blumstein, Sheila and Kenneth N. Stevens (1979) Acoustic invariance in speech production: Evidence from measurements of the spectral characteristics of stop consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 66, 1001-1017.  [pdf]    Jon Anderson

Kewley-Port, Diane (1983) Time-varying features as correlates of place of articulation in stop consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 73, 322-335.  [pdf]   Dan Fogerty

Stevens, K. N. and S. Blumstein. (1981). The search for invariant acoustic correlates of phonetic features. In P. Eimas and J. Miller (eds.) Perspectives on the Study of Speech (Erlman: Hillsdale, NJ).   [pdf]   Miguel
[Kewley-Port, D., D. Pisoni and M. Studdert-Kennedy (1983) Perception of static and dynamic acoustic cues to place of articulation in initial stop consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 73, 1779-1793]
[Fant, Gunnar (1966) A note on vocal tract size factors and non-uniform F-pattern scalings. KTH-QPR. Reprinted in G. Fant Speech Sounds and Features (MIT; Cambridge, 1975). On `normalization'.]
Week 6  (Oct 2)   Basics of Digital Signals
Digital signal processing handout
Basic acoustics handout
Acoustics of speech handout

Week 6-7   (Oct 4, 11, 16) The R-L Problem and its Implications

Logan, John, Scott Lively and David Pisoni and (1990) Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: A first report. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89, 874-886.  [pdf]  Yelena

Yamada, Reiko (1995) Age and acquisition of second language speech sounds: Perception of American English /r/ and /l/ by native speakers of Japanese. In Winifred Strange (ed.) Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in Cross-language Research. (York Press, Baltimore). pp 305-320.  [pdf]  Chung-lin

Pisoni, D. B. and Scott Lively (1995) Variability and invariance in speech perception: A new look at some old problems in perceptual learning. In Winifred Strange (ed.) Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in Cross-language Research. (York Press, Baltimore). pp 433-459.   [pdf]   Jon

Week 8. (Oct 18, 23, 25)  Development of Speech Perception

Werker, Janet and Richard Tees (1984a) Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavioral Development 7, 49-63. [pdf]   Dan

Kuhl, Pat  (2000) A new view of language acquisition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97.22,  11850-11857. [pdf]   Miguel

Kuhl, P. and Iverson (1995) Linguistic experience and the `Perceptual Magnet Effect.' In Winifred Strange (ed.) Speech Perception and Linguistics Experience: Issues in Cross-language Research. (York Press, Baltimore), pp.121-154.   [pdf]  Yelena

[Eimas, P. E. Siquelange, P. Juszyk and J. Vigorito (1971) Speech perception in infants.  Science 171, 303-306. KAM Perception   [pdf]

Tomasello, Michael and Hannes Rakoczy (2003) What makes human cognition unique?  From individual to shared to collective intentionality. Mind and Language 18, 121-147. [pdf]

Werker, Janet and Richard Tees (1984b) Phonemic and phonetic factors in adult cross-language speech perception. J. Acous. Soc. Amer. 75, 1866-1878. 
Flege, James E. (1989) Chinese subjects' perception of the word-final /t/-/d/ contrast: Performance before and after training. J. Acous. Soc. Amer. 86, 1684-1697.]

Week 9.  (Oct 30, Nov 1)   Reading, Speech Perception and Phonology    

 Rumelhart, David and James McClelland  (1981)  The interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception. Part 1 An account of basic findings.  Psych Review 88, 375-407.  [pdf]

  Port, Robert  (1994)  Tutorial sketch of the McClelland-Rumelhart model of word and letter recognition. (unpublished msp)  [pdf]

  Grossberg, Steven (1995) The neural dynamics of motion perception, recognition learning and spatial attention. In R. Port and T. van Gelder (eds) Mind as Motion: Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition (MITP), pp 449-489. (Focus on the ART model. You can skip the section on ``apparent motion'' as well as, of course, the mathematical appendices.)  [pdf]

Port, Robert (2002) The dynamical systems hypothesis cognitive science.  The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, Volume 1.  L. Nadel (ed) Nature Publishing Group, Macmillan Company, London, pp. 1027-1032.  [pdf   Yang

 Week 10-11  Motor Control for Speech

Rosenbaum,  David A. (1991)   Human Motor Control.  Academic Press.  Introduction., pp 1-33. [pdf]   Jon Anderson

Salzman. Elliott (1995) Dynamics and coordinate systems in skilled sensorimotor activity.  In Robert Port and Timothy van Gelder (1995) Mind as Motion: Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition (Bradford Books/MIT Press) pp. 149-173.  [pdf]   Dan F

Browman, Catherine and Louis Goldstein (1995) Dynamics and articulatory phonology. In Robert Port and Timothy van Gelder (1995) Mind as Motion: Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition (Bradford Books/MIT Press) pp. 175-194.  [pdf]    Miguel

Kent, Ray and Fred D. Minifie (1977)  Coarticulation in recent speech production models. J. Phonetics 5, 115-133  [pdf]   Yelena

Fowler, Carol (2007) Speech production.  Oxford Encyclopedia of Psycholinguistics.  pp. 489-501  [pdf]  

Handout: Motor Control for Linguists
Handout: Coordinative Structures: What are they?  (R. Port - 1984/2002)
handout: How a Mass-Spring System Could Account for Motor Control (R. Port, 2001).

Folkins, John and James Abbs (1975)   Lip and jaw motor control during speech: Responses to resistive loading of the jaw.  J. Speech and Hearing Research 18, 207-220.    KAM Production

Ostry, David and Kevin Munhall  (1985)  Control of rate and duration of speech movements. J. Acous. Soc Amer 77, 640-648.     KAM Production
Ladefoged, Peter (1967) Stress and respiratory activity. In Ladefoged, P. Three Areas of Acoustic Phonetics. (Oxford U. P.; London)

Week 12 Speech and Rhythmic Behavior  (Nov 13, 15)

Cummins, Fred and Robert F. Port. (1998) Rhythmic constraints on stress timing in English. Journal of Phonetics 26, 145-171.  [pdf]   Anderson

Port, R. (2007)  The problem of  speech patterns in time.  Oxford Encyclopedia of Psycholinguistics. [pdf]    Dan F

Tajima, Keiichi and R. Port (2003) Speech rhythm in English and Japanese. In John Local et al. (eds.) Papers in Laboratory Phonology VI. pp. 322-339 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).  [pdf]   Miguel

Port, Robert, Keiichi Tajima and Fred Cummins (1999) Speech and rhythmic behavior. In Geert Savelsburgh, Han van der Maas and Paul van Geert (eds) Non-linear Analysis of Development. Elsevier (Amsterdam, 1999), pp. 63-87. 
Port, Robert, Fred Cummins and J. Devin McAuley. Naive time, temporal patterns and human audition. In Robert Port and Timothy van Gelder (1995) Mind as Motion: Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition (Bradford Books/MIT Press) pp. 339-371.  [pdf]   [2-up pdf]
              van Gelder and Port (1995) It's about time: Overview of the dynamical approach to cognition. In Port and van Gelder (1995) Mind as Motion. (Bradford Books/MITP) pp. 1-43.  [pdf]    (This is my most comprehensive discussion of the problem of time in speech and auditory perception)

             Port, Robert (2003)  Meter and speech.  J. Phon 31, 599-611.  [pdf]

Week 13-14   Vowels Across Languages  (Nov  20, 27, 29)

Strange, Winifred (1995) Cross-language study of speech perception: A historical review. In W. Strange (ed.) Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in Cross-Language Research. (York Press: Baltimore), chap 1, pp. 3-45.  [pdf]

Strange, Winifred, James J. Jenkins and Thomas L. Johnson (1983) Dynamic specification of coarticulated vowels. J. Acous. Soc. Amer 74, 695-705.   [pdf]     Chung-lin

Nishi, Kanae and Diane Kewley-Port (2007)  Training Japanese listeners to perceive American English vowels: Influence of training sets.  Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 50, 1496-1509.   [pdf]  (This is now the  final published version that appeared TODAY, Dec ,2007.)   Elena

Week 15.  What is Phonetics? And what is Phonology?  (Dec 1, 3)

Port, Robert and Adam Leary (2005)  Against formal phonology. Language 81, 927-964   [pdf]     Anderson

Port, Robert (2007) How are words stored in memory?  Beyond phones and phonemes.  New Ideas in Psychology 25, 143-170.   [pdf]    Port

Ladefoged, P. (1980)  `Out of chaos comes order':   Physical biological and structural patterns in phonetics. In van den Broecke and Cohen (eds) Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Dordrecht: Foris Publishers, pp 83-95    [pdf]   Dan F.

Pisoni, David and Susanna Levi (2007) Representations and representational specificity in speech perception and spoken word recognition. In G. Gaskell (Editor) Oxford Encyclopedia of Psycholinguistics, (Oxford University Press). pp 3-18.   [pdf]

Your final exam is to answer these questions and return them to me by December 11.

Some Other Possible Topics for Advanced Phonetics, L641

RFP, Copyright Indiana University